3. HousingModel and a Concept of Automated Construction ("Auto-Construction")
It is my opinion that only after having accepted the concept of the presence of a pre-urban infrastructure in whatever degree it is ultimately realized, can we dedicate ourselves to developing a "transitory housing model for the medium to long term". To begin with, in the quest for this emergency housing solution, we must first consider what has been done in countries that have dedicated significant resources to this sector: Japan, USA and Canada. National House in Japan, for example, using 85 workers and robotic construction similar to that employed in the auto industry, produces 500 modular homes every month (one every 24 minutes). Seki-sui, using computer-aided manufacturing solutions is able to produce a house that is 85% complete (assembling 300,000 components) in 40 minutes. It is worth noting that Dywa, Misawa, and Seki-sui invest tax-free 1.4% of their gross revenues in research & development, because they deem the housing sector to be one of the world's largest emerging growth industries. (from: Engineering News Record)
The fundamental problem in the USA and Canada is that despite the extraordinary productive and distributional organization of pre- fabricated housing components, on the job site, the construction process is typically labor-intensive, and automation is limited to the tools currently used by construction workers.
By contrast in Japan, the phenomenal rapidity of construction in the factory is mirrored by the equally efficient speed of robotic on-site construction, as in the example of SMART technology or "Shimizu's Manufacturing System of Advanced Robotic Technology" (Civil Engineering Magazine, April 1991). This technology was used for the first time in Nagoya, Japan in the 1990's. It allowed for the construction of buildings up to 20 stories in height solely through the use of robotics, where human intervention was limited to the digital control of the robots themselves.
It is a fact that the concept of auto-construction on site was born in Italy. On July 4, 1965, a structure in the form of a monolithic dome made of reinforced concrete built itself. On that day, with the use of an electric turbine, I was able to raise from the soil a disk of reinforced concrete weighing 15 tons and 15 meters in diameter. In 30 minutes this disk was transformed into a dome 15 meters and 8 centimeters in thickness which was self-supporting in a few days. In the same way and using my construction technologies, in 28 countries around the world, 1600 reinforced concrete domes of varying diameter and shape have been automatically constructed. Some of the structures were made of using a circular, while others used a square base reinforced concrete footing. These self-constructed structures are known as Binishells, Minishells and BiniShelter.
This last BiniShelter technology uses a pneumatic process for the contemporary erection of all its pre-fabricated components. The 8 components, should be produced and finished in a small factory, (potentially through the use of CAMs Computer-Aided Machinery) and than are transported in a compact format, wrapped in plastic, and assembled at ground level aroung a special pneumatic lifting unit that is pre-disposed in the center of the prefab floor. With the pneumatic auto-erection of the 4 walls and the 4 roof components, one is able to achieve construction rapidity without precedent.
Obviously the volume constructed and enclosed by such components is empty, but fully insulated, waterproofed and finished in details) and can be made as thermically and acoustically comfortable as is required by local codes and requirements and budgetary restraints. Each individual building can be immediately, or over time, associated to other structures of the same dimention, and many architectural solutions may be achieved and details can be modified at will. For example, the roofing slopes can vary according to the rainfall characteristics of the area where the building is deployed. Such a construction method is reversible in that it is easily dismantled and transportable to another location where it can be remounted using local labor, even unskilled labor.